Tank Heavy Assault A39, Tortoise (E1951.32)
The gun in Tortoise was adapted from the famous 3.7 inch anti-aircraft gun and it is supported in a giant ball mounting. like an enormous gimbal, rather than conventional trunnions. This gun was capable of dealing with the most powerful German tanks of the war period and probably would have been a match for contemporary Soviet machines but it was too heavy and too slow for modern warfare.
Two of these machines were tested in Germany in 1948. They were difficult to transport and could damage roads and bridges but in firing trials the gun proved extremely accurate. However it was hard work for the loader, despite the fact that shell and shell case were loaded separately and there was considerable criticism of the ammunition stowage arrangements. Tortoise was never accepted for active service.
This particular vehicle was used in motion study (see 623.438.4(41) TORTOISE) and in firing trials at Larkhill in 1949 (see 623.438.4(41) TORTOISE).
Precise Name: Tank, Heavy Assault, A39, Tortoise
Other Name: AT17
The A39 Tortoise is the ultimate manifestation of the British concept of the heavily armoured, but slow, ‘Infantry’ tank. Conceived in 1943 some 17 designs were considered during its’ evolution before a configuration that was similar to the German turretless assault guns was decided upon. It appears from contemporary documents that Mr Duncan Sandys who was Secretary of State for War and Prime Minister Churchill’s son-in-law backed the project.
The design that was actually produced by Nuffield Mechanisation Ltd, AT17, was submitted in February 1944. It mounted a 3.7in (93.4mm) gun carried in a ball mount or gimbal in the hull front. This gun fired an Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot projectile at 3,600 feet/sec and proved to be very accurate and destructive. The gun was capable of penetrating all the German tanks of the late war period and would probably have been a match for contemporary Soviet tanks. The tank rode on 36in wide tracks and had a double torsion bar suspension. The superstructure was a massive single casting. The armour had a maximum thickness of nearly 9 inches (225mm) and the tank weighed a massive 78 tons. It seems that all the physical constraints that British tank designers had laboured under were discarded for this project! These included the limits due to the railway loading gauge, the strength of Bailey Bridges and the width of landing craft ramps. In practice the Tortoise proved to be too slow and unwieldy for the conditions of modern warfare and was a nightmare to transport.
Twenty five tanks were ordered in May 1944 and deliveries were expected to start in September 1945. However none had appeared by the autumn of 1945 and the order was reduced to 12 vehicles. The first tank finally appeared in 1946 by which time the War Office had lost interest in the project and in the end only five were manufactured.
The only service that the Tortoise had was when two tanks took part in trials in Germany in 1948. These showed that it was difficult to transport and could damage roads and bridges. The tank proved to be surprisingly reliable and the gun very accurate. However it was hard work for the loader despite the fact that the projectile and cartridge case were loaded separately, (the complete round weighed 45 lb.). There was also considerable criticism of the ammunition stowage arrangements.
The Universal tank. British Armour in the Second World War, Part 2. David Fletcher. ISBN 0 11 290534 X, HMSO, London 1993
Painted on the vehicle are the letters JLR 98 in white